Guide for Authors


All contributions should be in English and, since the readership of the journal is international, authors are reminded that simple, concise sentences are our preferred style. It is also suggested that papers are spellchecked and, if necessary, proofread by a native English speaker in order to avoid grammatical errors. All technical terms that may not be clear to the reader should be clearly explained.

The usual size of a paper is 5000 to 8 000 words.


All papers will be submitted to expert referees from the editorial board for review. Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

The manuscript must be arranged in the following order:


Author information


Text and citations



Reference list



The title should be concise and informative.

Author information

The name(s) of the author(s)

The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country

A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author

If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)

Abstract (strict limit of 200-250 words)


The manuscript should be between 5000 and 8000 words (about 25 pages including references, notes, and tables).

For general matters of style, LTD follows The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, published by The University of Chicago Press.

LTD uses the following subheadings (in this order):

  1. Arabic Numbers, Boldface Font, Cap and Lower Case

1.1. Arabic Numbers, Italic Font, Cap and Lower Case

1.1.1. Arabic Numbers, Cap and Lower Case

Run-in Text, Italic Font, Cap and Lower Case.

If only three levels of subheads are used, omit the third-level subhead (1.1.1. Arabic Numbers, Cap and Lower Case).

Each figure and table must be mentioned in the text in order of its appearance. All figures and tables, including those in appendixes, must be mentioned in the text.

Do not use "etc.," "e.g.," or "i.e." anywhere. Please spell these out as "and so on" or "and the like," "for example," and "namely" or "that is."


Bases In-text citation:

Chicago-style in-text links in author-date format

You may cite as follows:

Text…(Author date, page) For example: (Tapscott 1996, 5)

Several authors: (Author, Author and Author date, page) For example: (Cecil, Lind, and Bermant 1987, 56)

More than 4 authors: (Author et al. date, page)

No author: (name of department or publisher date, page) For example (U. S. Congress 2015, 4)

No date: (Author n.d., page)

If the author and date are repeated: (Author date (a,b,c…), page)

Or you can use following examples:

Note: use italics in book titles, journal titles, paper titles, and conference titles


T: (Boulding 1981)

R: Boulding, K. 1981. Evolutionary Economics. Beverly Hills.

Chapter in a book

T: Holmes (1988) argues that

R: Holmes, S. 1988. "Precommitment and the Paradox of Democracy." 195-240 in Constitutionalism and Democracy, edited by John Elster and Rune Slagstad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Edited book

T: (Georgescu-Roegen 2003)

R: Georgescu-Roegen, N. 2003. Bioeconomia Verso un’altra economia ecologicamente e socialmente sostenibile. Mauro Bonaiuti (ed.). Bollati Boringhieri.

Journal article

T: The model used in Levine et al. (1999)

R: Levine, P. B., D. Staiger, T. J. Kane, and D. J. Zimmerman. 1999. "Roe v. Wade and American Fertility." American Journal of Public Health 89:199-203.

Entire issue of a journal

T: The fairness or efficiency benefits of bad-faith laws are discussed at length in Texas Law Review (1994)

R: Texas Law Review. 1994. Symposium: "Law of Bad Faith in Contrast and Insurance." Special issue, 72:1203-1702.

Magazine or newspaper article with no author

T: had appeared in Newsweek (2000).

R: Newsweek. 2000. " Gets Ripped." September 18.

Magazine or newspaper article with author(s)

T: (Mathews and DeBaise 2000)

R: Mathews, A. W., and C. DeBaise. 2000. " Deal Ends Lawsuit on Copyrights." Wall Street Journal, November 11.


T: (Thapa et al. 2019)

R: Thapa, S., P. Ghosh, and B. Chhetri. 2019. “Security Issues on Blockchain Network (BcN): A Review”. 2nd International Conference on Advances in Science & Technology (ICAST) 2019 on 8th, 9th April 2019 by K J Somaiya Institute of Engineering & Information Technology, Mumbai, India.


T: (Noto La Diega 2014)

R: Noto La Diega, G. “Il paradigma proprietario e l’appropriazione dell’immateriale.” PhD thesis. Università degli Studi di Palermo, 2014.


T: In International Salt Co. v. United States (332 U.S. 392 [1947]), for example,

R: Do not include cases in the reference list

Stable URL

T: According to the Federal Trade Commission (1999),

R: Federal Trade Commission. 1999. "State Agencies Administering Franchise Disclosure Laws." (last updated June 16, 1999).

Online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia / no data = n. d.

T: ( n.d.)

R: n.d.

One author

T: Following Tapscott (1996), we argue that

R: Tapscott, D. 1996. The digital economy: Promise and peril in the age of networked intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Two authors

T: As demonstrated elsewhere (Daniels and Martin 1995),

R: Daniels, S., and J. Martin. 1995. Civil Injuries and the Politics of Reform. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press.

Three authors

T: As suggested by Cecil, Lind, and Bermant (1987),

R: Cecil, J. S., A. E. Lind, and B. Bermant. 1987. Jury Service in Lengthy Civil Trials. Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center.

More than three authors

T: Following the research design in Turner et al. (2002),

R: Turner, C. F., S. M. Rogers, H. G. Miller, W. C. Miller, J. N. Gribble, J. R. Chromy, P. A. Leone, P. C. Cooley, T. C. Quinn, and J. M. Zenilman. 2002. "Untreated Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infection in a Probability Sample of Adults." Journal of the American Medical Association 287:726-33.

More than one work

Clermont and Eisenberg (1992, 1998)

More than one work in a year

T: (White 1991a, C1)

R: White, J. A. 1991a. "Shareholder-Rights Movement Sways a Number of Big Companies." Wall Street Journal, April 4.

Multiple authors and works

(Witte 1980; Grogger 1991; Levitt 1997)


Funding (information that explains whether and by whom the research was supported)

Conflicts of interest/Competing interests (include appropriate disclosures)

Availability of data and material (data transparency)

Code availability (software application or custom code)

Authors' contributions (optional)


Each table must be mentioned in the text in order of its appearance. All tables, including those in appendixes, must be mentioned in the text.

Tables follow the style given in chapter 13 of The Chicago Manual of Style and must be formatted according to our Guidelines for tables.

No more than one table should appear on a page. All elements of tables, including the notes, must be double spaced; tables may run more than one page.

Tables should have brief titles. All explanatory material should be provided in notes at the bottom of the table.

Identify all quantities, units of measurement, and abbreviations for all entries. What is clear to you may not be clear to the general reader of The Journal of Law and Economics.

Sources should be identified in full at the bottom of the each table. Do not give cross-references to footnotes elsewhere in the article.

Significance levels are denoted in separate notes as follows: + P < .10; * P < .05; ** P < .01.