Guide for Authors


All contributions should be in English and, since the readership of the journal is international, authors are reminded that simple, concise sentences are our preferred style. It is also suggested that papers are spellchecked and, if necessary, proofread by a native English speaker in order to avoid grammatical errors. All technical terms that may not be clear to the reader should be clearly explained.

The usual size of a paper is 5000 to 8 000 words.

In general, an author should not submit for consideration in another journal a previously published paper.

However, LTD is ready to accept the papers published in foreign languages to render them more visible to the English-language-dominated research community.  We closely follow COPE's principles of publication ethics:  "The republication of articles in foreign language journals is quite common. This is only acceptable if the authors make this very clear to the journals involved and clearly reference the first publication".

LDT does not view the following uses of a work as prior publication: publication in the form of an abstract; publication as an academic thesis; publication as an electronic preprint.

Submission of an article implies that  it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out; and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. 


All papers will be submitted to expert referees from the editorial board for review. Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.


The manuscript must be arranged in the following order:



Author information


Text and citations



Reference list






The title should be concise and informative.


Author information


The name(s) of the author(s)

The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country

A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author

If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)



Abstract (strict limit of  200-250 words)




The manuscript should be between 5000 and 8000 words (about 25 pages including references, notes, and tables).


For general matters of style, LTD follows The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, published by The University of Chicago Press.


LTD uses the following subheadings (in this order):


  1. Arabic Numbers, Boldface Font, Cap and Lower Case

1.1. Arabic Numbers, Italic Font, Cap and Lower Case

1.1.1. Arabic Numbers, Cap and Lower Case

Run-in Text, Italic Font, Cap and Lower Case.

If only three levels of subheads are used, omit the third-level subhead (1.1.1. Arabic Numbers, Cap and Lower Case).

Each figure and table must be mentioned in the text in order of its appearance. All figures and tables, including those in appendixes, must be mentioned in the text.

Do not use "etc.," "e.g.," or "i.e." anywhere. Please spell these out as "and so on" or "and the like," "for example," and "namely" or "that is."




One author

T: Following Tapscott (1996), we argue that

R: Tapscott, Don. 1996 The digital economy: Promise and peril in the age of networked intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Two authors

T: As demonstrated elsewhere (Daniels and Martin 1995),

R: Daniels, Stephen, and Joanne Martin. 1995. Civil Injuries and the Politics of Reform. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press.


Three authors

T: As suggested by Cecil, Lind, and Bermant (1987),

R: Cecil, Joe S., E. Allan Lind, and Gordon Bermant. 1987. Jury Service in Lengthy Civil Trials. Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center.


More than three authors

T: Following the research design in Turner et al. (2002),

R: Turner, Charles F., Susan M. Rogers, Heather G. Miller, William C. Miller, James N. Gribble, James R. Chromy, Peter A. Leone, Phillip C. Cooley, Thomas C. Quinn, and Jonathan M. Zenilman. 2002. "Untreated Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infection in a Probability Sample of Adults." Journal of the American Medical Association 287:726-33.


Institutional author

T: (U.S. Department of Justice 1992)

R: U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1992. Civil Justice Survey of State Courts. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


No author

T: (Journal of the Assembly 1822, 952-53).

R: Journal of the Assembly of the State of New York at Their Forty-fifth Session, Begun and Held at the Capitol, in the City of Albany, the First Day of January, 1822. 1822. Albany: Cantine & Leake.


With locating information

(Hovenkamp 1994, 366-69)

(Wiel 1911, 1:792-831; Scott and Coustalin 1995)

(Smith 2003, chap. 11; Jennings 1998, fig. 2a)

Craswell (2003, 255 n. 13)-where note 13 is on page 255

Craswell (2003, 254 and n. 11)-where note 11 is not on page 254


With simple signal

(see, for example, Corcoran 2004; Mullen 2000)

(see especially Demsetz 1967, 350)


Chatty in-text citation

(see Polinsky and Shavell [1979, 1984], for a discussion)

We use a biweight kernel with a smoothing parameter optimized on the assumption that the underlying data are normally distributed (see Silverman [1986] and Stine [1996] for more information on kernel estimation).


More than one work

Clermont and Eisenberg (1992, 1998)


More than one work in a year

T: (White 1991a, C1)

R: White, James A. 1991a. "Shareholder-Rights Movement Sways a Number of Big Companies." Wall Street Journal, April 4.


Multiple authors and works

(Witte 1980; Grogger 1991; Levitt 1997)


Chapter in a book

T: Holmes (1988) argues that

R: Holmes, Stephen. 1988. "Precommitment and the Paradox of Democracy." 195-240 in Constitutionalism and Democracy, edited by John Elster and Rune Slagstad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Chapter in a multivolume work

T: Schwartz and Sykes (1998) differ from this view

R: Schwartz, Warren F., and Alan O. Sykes. 1998. "Most-Favoured-Nation Obligations in International Trade." In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, vol. 2, 660-64, edited by Peter Newman. London: MacMillan.



T: Using the method of Greene (1997), we constructed a model to show

R: Greene, William H. 1997. Econometric Analysis. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.



T: (Angell and Ames [1832] 1972, 24)

R: Angell, Joseph Kinniaut, and Samuel Ames. (1832) 1972. "A Treatise on the Law of Private Corporations Aggregate." Repr., New York: Arno.


Journal article

T: The model used in Levine et al. (1999)

R: Levine, Phillip B., Douglas Staiger, Thomas J. Kane, and David J. Zimmerman. 1999. "Roe v. Wade and American Fertility." American Journal of Public Health 89:199-203.


Entire issue of a journal

T: The fairness or efficiency benefits of bad-faith laws are discussed at length in Texas Law Review (1994)

R: Texas Law Review. 1994. Symposium: "Law of Bad Faith in Contrast and Insurance." Special issue, 72:1203-1702.


Magazine or newspaper article with no author

T: had appeared in Newsweek (2000).

R: Newsweek. 2000. " Gets Ripped." September 18.


Magazine or newspaper article with author(s)

T: (Mathews and DeBaise 2000)

R: Mathews, Anna Wilde, and Colleen DeBaise. 2000. " Deal Ends Lawsuit on Copyrights." Wall Street Journal, November 11.


Unpublished manuscript

T: (Daughety and Reinganum 2002)

R: Daughety, Andrew F., and Jennifer F. Reinganum. 2002. "Exploiting Future Settlements: A Signaling Model of Most-Favored-Nation Clauses in Settlement Bargaining." Unpublished manuscript. Vanderbilt University, Department of Economics, August.


Working paper

T: (Eisenberg and Wells 2002)

R: Eisenberg, Theodore, and Martin T. Wells. 2002. "Trial Outcomes and Demographics: Is There a Bronx Effect?" Working paper. Cornell University Law School, Ithaca, N.Y.


Numbered working paper

T: (Glaeser and Sacerdote 2000)

R: Glaeser, Edward L., and Bruce Sacerdote. 2000. "The Determinants of Punishment: Deterrence, Incapacitation and Vengeance." Working Paper no. 7676. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass.



T: In International Salt Co. v. United States (332 U.S. 392 [1947]), for example,

R: Do not include cases in the reference list


Subsequent in-text citations of case

(332 U.S. 397)

(International Salt, 332 U.S. at 398).


Personal correspondence/communication

T: as asserted by Welch (1998)

R: Welch, Thomas. 1998. Letter to author, January 15.


Stable URL

T: According to the Federal Trade Commission (1999),

R: Federal Trade Commission. 1999. "State Agencies Administering Franchise Disclosure Laws." (last updated June 16, 1999).


Data set

T: We ran regressions on the number of crimes committed during the period (U.S. Department of Justice 1973-99)

R: U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1973Ð99. Capital Punishment in the United States (computer file). Ann Arbor, Mich.: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research.


In press

T: (Spier 2003)

R: Spier, Kathryn E. 2003. "The Use of Most-Favored-Nations Clauses in Settlement of Litigation." RAND Journal of Economics 34 (forthcoming).



T: One study (Joyce, forthcoming) includes the District of Columbia

R: Joyce, Ted. Forthcoming. "Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?" Journal of Human Resources.





Funding (information that explains whether and by whom the research was supported)

Conflicts of interest/Competing interests (include appropriate disclosures)

Availability of data and material (data transparency)

Code availability (software application or custom code)

Authors' contributions (optional)





Each table must be mentioned in the text in order of its appearance. All tables, including those in appendixes, must be mentioned in the text.

Tables follow the style given in chapter 13 of The Chicago Manual of Style and must be formatted according to our Guidelines for tables.

No more than one table should appear on a page. All elements of tables, including the notes, must be double spaced; tables may run more than one page.

Tables should have brief titles. All explanatory material should be provided in notes at the bottom of the table.

Identify all quantities, units of measurement, and abbreviations for all entries. What is clear to you may not be clear to the general reader of The Journal of Law and Economics.

Sources should be identified in full at the bottom of the each table. Do not give cross-references to footnotes elsewhere in the article.

Significance levels are denoted in separate notes as follows: + P < .10; * P < .05; ** P < .01.