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T: Following Tapscott (1996), we argue that
R: Tapscott, Don. 1996 The digital economy: Promise and peril in the age of networked intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
T: As demonstrated elsewhere (Daniels and Martin 1995),
R: Daniels, Stephen, and Joanne Martin. 1995. Civil Injuries and the Politics of Reform. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press.
T: As suggested by Cecil, Lind, and Bermant (1987),
R: Cecil, Joe S., E. Allan Lind, and Gordon Bermant. 1987. Jury Service in Lengthy Civil Trials. Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center.
More than three authors
T: Following the research design in Turner et al. (2002),
R: Turner, Charles F., Susan M. Rogers, Heather G. Miller, William C. Miller, James N. Gribble, James R. Chromy, Peter A. Leone, Phillip C. Cooley, Thomas C. Quinn, and Jonathan M. Zenilman. 2002. "Untreated Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infection in a Probability Sample of Adults." Journal of the American Medical Association 287:726-33.
T: (U.S. Department of Justice 1992)
R: U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1992. Civil Justice Survey of State Courts. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
T: (Journal of the Assembly 1822, 952-53).
R: Journal of the Assembly of the State of New York at Their Forty-fifth Session, Begun and Held at the Capitol, in the City of Albany, the First Day of January, 1822. 1822. Albany: Cantine & Leake.
With locating information
(Hovenkamp 1994, 366-69)
(Wiel 1911, 1:792-831; Scott and Coustalin 1995)
(Smith 2003, chap. 11; Jennings 1998, fig. 2a)
Craswell (2003, 255 n. 13)-where note 13 is on page 255
Craswell (2003, 254 and n. 11)-where note 11 is not on page 254
With simple signal
(see, for example, Corcoran 2004; Mullen 2000)
(see especially Demsetz 1967, 350)
Chatty in-text citation
(see Polinsky and Shavell [1979, 1984], for a discussion)
We use a biweight kernel with a smoothing parameter optimized on the assumption that the underlying data are normally distributed (see Silverman  and Stine  for more information on kernel estimation).
More than one work
Clermont and Eisenberg (1992, 1998)
More than one work in a year
T: (White 1991a, C1)
R: White, James A. 1991a. "Shareholder-Rights Movement Sways a Number of Big Companies." Wall Street Journal, April 4.
Multiple authors and works
(Witte 1980; Grogger 1991; Levitt 1997)
Chapter in a book
T: Holmes (1988) argues that
R: Holmes, Stephen. 1988. "Precommitment and the Paradox of Democracy." 195-240 in Constitutionalism and Democracy, edited by John Elster and Rune Slagstad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chapter in a multivolume work
T: Schwartz and Sykes (1998) differ from this view
R: Schwartz, Warren F., and Alan O. Sykes. 1998. "Most-Favoured-Nation Obligations in International Trade." In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, vol. 2, 660-64, edited by Peter Newman. London: MacMillan.
T: Using the method of Greene (1997), we constructed a model to show
R: Greene, William H. 1997. Econometric Analysis. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
T: (Angell and Ames  1972, 24)
R: Angell, Joseph Kinniaut, and Samuel Ames. (1832) 1972. "A Treatise on the Law of Private Corporations Aggregate." Repr., New York: Arno.
T: The model used in Levine et al. (1999)
R: Levine, Phillip B., Douglas Staiger, Thomas J. Kane, and David J. Zimmerman. 1999. "Roe v. Wade and American Fertility." American Journal of Public Health 89:199-203.
Entire issue of a journal
T: The fairness or efficiency benefits of bad-faith laws are discussed at length in Texas Law Review (1994)
R: Texas Law Review. 1994. Symposium: "Law of Bad Faith in Contrast and Insurance." Special issue, 72:1203-1702.
Magazine or newspaper article with no author
T: had appeared in Newsweek (2000).
R: Newsweek. 2000. "MP3.com Gets Ripped." September 18.
Magazine or newspaper article with author(s)
T: (Mathews and DeBaise 2000)
R: Mathews, Anna Wilde, and Colleen DeBaise. 2000. "MP3.com Deal Ends Lawsuit on Copyrights." Wall Street Journal, November 11.
T: (Daughety and Reinganum 2002)
R: Daughety, Andrew F., and Jennifer F. Reinganum. 2002. "Exploiting Future Settlements: A Signaling Model of Most-Favored-Nation Clauses in Settlement Bargaining." Unpublished manuscript. Vanderbilt University, Department of Economics, August.
T: (Eisenberg and Wells 2002)
R: Eisenberg, Theodore, and Martin T. Wells. 2002. "Trial Outcomes and Demographics: Is There a Bronx Effect?" Working paper. Cornell University Law School, Ithaca, N.Y.
Numbered working paper
T: (Glaeser and Sacerdote 2000)
R: Glaeser, Edward L., and Bruce Sacerdote. 2000. "The Determinants of Punishment: Deterrence, Incapacitation and Vengeance." Working Paper no. 7676. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass.
T: In International Salt Co. v. United States (332 U.S. 392 ), for example,
R: Do not include cases in the reference list
Subsequent in-text citations of case
(332 U.S. 397)
(International Salt, 332 U.S. at 398).
T: as asserted by Welch (1998)
R: Welch, Thomas. 1998. Letter to author, January 15.
T: According to the Federal Trade Commission (1999),
R: Federal Trade Commission. 1999. "State Agencies Administering Franchise Disclosure Laws." http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/franchise/netdiscl.htm (last updated June 16, 1999).
T: We ran regressions on the number of crimes committed during the period (U.S. Department of Justice 1973-99)
R: U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1973Ð99. Capital Punishment in the United States (computer file). Ann Arbor, Mich.: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research.
T: (Spier 2003)
R: Spier, Kathryn E. 2003. "The Use of Most-Favored-Nations Clauses in Settlement of Litigation." RAND Journal of Economics 34 (forthcoming).
T: One study (Joyce, forthcoming) includes the District of Columbia
R: Joyce, Ted. Forthcoming. "Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?" Journal of Human Resources.
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Identify all quantities, units of measurement, and abbreviations for all entries. What is clear to you may not be clear to the general reader of The Journal of Law and Economics.
Sources should be identified in full at the bottom of the each table. Do not give cross-references to footnotes elsewhere in the article.
Significance levels are denoted in separate notes as follows: + P < .10; * P < .05; ** P < .01.